Skip to content

PACS Vobiscum

PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) numbers, based on the International Classification Scheme for Physics created by the American Institute of Physics and published by The International Council for Scientific and Technical Information, are a group of up to six alpha-numeric characters designed to classify in detail the technical content of scientific papers. In addition to making it easier for journal editors to identify suitable referees, when attached to the abstract of a manuscript they make it possible for automated search engines to rapidly and unambiguously identify the likely audience for the paper. This information can then be employed to compile one of the many computer generated abstract lists that are targeted to readers with specific interests (e.g., scanning microscopy, laser confocal imaging, etc.). Because the original PACS system was designed for the physical sciences it is somewhat deficient in biological content although it covers instrumentation issues quite acceptably.

Because the inclusion of one or more relevant PACS numbers on a published paper enhances the probability that it will be brought to the attention of researchers with an interest in that particular topic SCANNING has, for the past two years, requested that authors of manuscripts submitted for publication in the journal take the time to add their selection of appropriate PACS numbers to their paper.

Unfortunately a significant fraction of all manuscripts that are submitted during the past twelve months have not been accompanied by PACS data. Clearly many authors had simply not noted the requirement in the INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS, or they had no idea what PACS numbers were, or possibly they had no idea where to find a listing of PACS categories from which to work. In fact the complete list of PACS numbers can be downloaded from the American Institute of Physics website ( but it runs to some thirty pages of small print, and navigating this can be a daunting and confusing task. As an aid to prospective authors a list of the PACS numbers that are most relevant to the subject matter of SCANNING is given below. Please help us to help you and your paper get the maximum exposure by using this list to index your paper when you submit it to us. Thanks — and pax vobiscum.

David C. Joy, Editor-in-Chief

PACS Number Topic
00.00.00 GENERAL
01.00.00 Communication, education, history, and philosophy
01.10.-m Announcements, news, and organizational activities
01.10.Cr Announcements, news, and awards
01.10.Fv Conferences, lectures, and institutes
01.30.Bb Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)
01.30.Cc Conference proceedings
01.30.Ee Monographs and collections
01.30.Kj Handbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations
01.30.Mm Textbooks for graduates and researchers
01.30.Pp Textbooks for undergraduates
01.30.Rr Surveys and tutorial papers; resource letters
01.30.Tt Bibliographies
01.30.Vv Book reviews
01.30.Xx Publications in electronic media
(for the topic of electronic publishing, see 01.20)
01.50.Lc Laboratory computer use
(see also 01.50.Pa)
02.30.Nw Fourier analysis
02.70.Tt Justifications or modifications of Monte Carlo methods
02.70.Uu Applications of Monte Carlo methods
05.10.Ln Monte Carlo methods
05.40.Fb Random walks and Levy flights
05.45.Df Fractals
(see also 47.53 Fractals in fluid dynamics)
06.00.00 Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures
06.20.-f Metrology
07.05.Pj Image processing
07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation
07.10.Cm Micromechanical devices and systems
07.20.Fw Calorimeters
(for carolimeters as radiation detectors, see 29.40.Vj)
07.50.-e Electrical and electronic instruments and components
07.50.Ek Circuits and circuit components
(see also 84.30 Electronic circuits and 84.32 Passive circuit components)
07.50.Hp Electrical noise and shielding equipment
07.50.Qx Signal processing electronics
(see also 84.40.Ua-in radiowave and microwave technology)
07.78.+s Electron, positron, and ion microscopes; electron diffractometers
07.79.-v Scanning probe microscopes and components
(see also 68.37.-d in surfaces and interfaces)
07.79.Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes
07.79.Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes
07.79.Lh Atomic force microscopes
07.79.Pk Magnetic force microscopes
07.79.Sp Friction force microscopes
07.81.+a Electron AND ion spectrometers
07.85.Tt X-ray microscopes
25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering
25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states
25.30.Fj Inelastic electron scattering to continuum
25.70.-z Low and intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions
29.30.Dn Electron spectroscopy
29.40.Vj Calorimeters
29.40.Wk Solid-state detectors
29.50.+v Computer interfaces
(see also 07.05.Wr in computers in experimental physics)
29.85.+c Computer data analysis
34.50.Bw Energy loss and stopping power
34.50.Dy Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces; photon and electron emission;
34.80.-i Electron scattering
34.80.Bm Elastic scattering of electrons by atoms and molecules
34.80.Dp Atomic excitation and ionization by electron impact
34.80.Gs Molecular excitation and ionization by electron impact
34.80.Ht Dissociation and dissociative attachment by electron impact
34.80.Kw Electron-ion scattering; excitation and ionization
41.00.00 Electromagnetism; electron and ion optics
41.75.Fr Electron and positron beams
41.85.Gy Chromatic and geometrical aberrations
42.25.Kb Coherence
42.30.Kq Fourier optics
42.30.Lr Modulation and optical transfer functions
42.30.Rx Phase retrieval
42.30.Sy Pattern recognition
42.30.Tz Computer vision; robotic vision
42.30.Va Image forming and processing
42.40.-i Holography
42.40.Ht Hologram recording and read-out methods
(see also 42.70.Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media)
42.40.Jv Computer-generated holograms
42.40.Kw Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques
(see also 07.60.Ly Interferometers)
42.82.Cr Fabrication techniques; lithography, pattern transfer
61.10.Dp Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.-x Electron diffraction and scattering
(for electron diffractometers, see 07.65)
61.14.Dc Theories of diffraction and scattering
61.14.Hg Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron
61.14.Lj Convergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction
61.14.Nm Electron holography
61.72.Dd Experimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
61.72.Ff Direct observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
61.72.Ji Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, color centers, etc.) and defect clusters
61.72.Lk Linear defects: dislocations, disclinations
61.72.Mm Grain and twin boundaries
61.72.Nn Stacking faults and other planar or extended defects
61.72.Qq Microscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
61.72.Ss Impurity concentration, distribution, and gradients
(for impurities in thin films, see 68.55.Ln; see also 66.30.Jt Diffusion of impurities)
61.72.Tt Doping and impurity implantation in germanium and silicon
61.72.Vv Doping and impurity implantation in III-V and II-VI semiconductors
61.72.Ww Doping and impurity implantation in other materials
61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage (for photochemical reactions, see 82.50.-m)
61.80.Fe Electrons and positron radiation effects
61.82.Bg Metals and alloys
61.82.Fk Semiconductors
61.82.Ms Insulators
61.82.Pv Polymers, organic compounds
61.82.Rx Nanocrystalline materials
61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
68.37.-d Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
68.37.Ef Scanning tunneling microscopy (including chemistry induced with STM)
68.37.Hk Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (including EBIC)
68.37.Lp Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including STEM, HRTEM, etc.)
68.37.Nq Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM)
68.37.Ps Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
68.37.Rt Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
68.37.Tj Acoustic force microscopy
68.37.Uv Near-field scanning microscopy and spectroscopy
68.37.Vj Field emission and field-ion microscopy
68.37.Xy Scanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
68.37.Yz X-ray microscopy
68.49.Jk Electron scattering from surfaces
73.63.Fg Nanotubes
73.63.Hs Quantum wells
73.63.Kv Quantum dots
73.63.Nm Quantum wires
73.63.Rt Nanoscale contacts
78.60.Hk Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
78.67.-n Optical properties of nanoscale materials and structures
78.67.Bf Nanocrystals and nanoparticles
78.67.Ch Nanotubes
78.67.De Quantum wells
78.67.Hc Quantum dots
78.67.Lt Quantum wires
79.20.Ds Laser-beam impact phenomena
79.20.Fv Electron impact: Auger emission
79.20.Hx Electron impact: secondary emission
81.05.Bx Metals, semimetals, and alloys
81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors
81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors
81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors
81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors
81.05.Hd Other semiconductors
81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization
81.07.Bc Nanocrystalline materials
81.07.De Nanotubes
81.07.Lk Nanocontacts
81.15.Jj Ion and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating
81.16.Nd Nanolithography
81.70.Jb Chemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy (x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology
(see also 85.45 Vacuum microelectronics)
85.40.Hp Lithography, masks and pattern transfer
Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices, see 85.85.+j
85.40.Ls Metallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
85.40.Qx Microcircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
85.45.Db Field emitter and arrays, cold electron emitters
87.50.-a Effects of radiation and external fields on biomolecules, cells and higher organisms
87.50.Gi Ionizing radiations (ultraviolet, x-rays, y-rays, ions, electrons, positrons, neutrons, and mesons, etc.)